Antibiotics are medicine that helps to stop an infection that is caused by bacteria. They do this by killing the bacteria or preventing them from reproducing in the host. Antibiotics are considered one of the best discoveries in modern medicine, it can be used to treat a broad range of infections, such as common conditions like strep throat, acne, urinary tract infections, and more.
Effect of antibiotics on gut
The human gut is the largest reservoir for microbiota in humans, the antibiotics not only kill the bacteria that cause infection, but it also affects the microbiota that resides in our gut, and cause changes in our gut microbiome.
It is not till relative modern age that the effect of antibiotics on the gut microbiome is examined, though each individual gut microbiome is diversified, however, based on a study revealed that healthy individuals following treatment of ciprofloxacin impacted the abundance of bacteria in the fecal samples, including decreased taxonomic, evenness of the community and diversity. Though it is shown that some individuals were able to recover after the course of treatment, some others did not recover even after 5 months. Similar results are found in children, with early-life use of antibiotics increasing the risk of developing asthma, proving that antibiotics exposure in life is a risk factor for asthma later on. The abundance of FLVR(genera Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, Veillonella, and Rothia) was decreased in children being treated with antibiotics around three months old. The changes in community is also accompanied by changes in metabolites such as short-chain fatty acid, acetate, which is known to influence the host immune and metabolism function.
There are more and more studies now showing the observation of the impact of short term, or low dose antibiotic treatment can have on the gut microbiome, and the long- term effects on health it can have, especially in young children and pregnant women.
The effects of probiotics
Probiotics continue to be one of the fastest-growing categories in the health and wellness industry, with more to be discovered about its effect on the human gut microbiome and the benefits. The theory behind how probiotic can restore the gut microbiome after antibiotic treatment is yet to be tested, there are studies indicating that probiotics may have a potential role in inflammatory bowel disease, prevention of pouchitis onset and chronic pouchitis relapses, there might potentially be a role in the militance treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease as well. In the most comprehensive meta-analysis conducted of a meta-analysis of a total of 82 RCTs(randomized clinical trials), the majority used Lactobacillus-based interventions alone or in combination with other genera, indicated that the use of probiotics is associated with a reduction in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The mechanism of actions is still unclear, however, there are some proposed theories involving competition for nutrients, production of antimicrobial materials, stimulation of immunity, and inhibition of mucosal and epithelial adherence of pathogens, or immunomodulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Another study also indicated that probiotic use may prevent C. difficile infection in patients who are currently on antibiotics. As more and more studies are being conducted, we can slowly unravel the true health benefits of probiotics and what it can bring to our health.
The probiotics within Koso
Koso drink is a century-old traditional fermented drink made from vegetables, fruits, and plants. R’s KOSO is the only superfood supplement on the market that provides balanced nutrition, combining probiotics and prebiotics. One-year fermentation of this traditional drink has good bacteria which are Lactobacillus Brevis, Lactobacillus Plantarum, Lactobacillus Casei, Lactococcus Lactis. And galactooligosaccharide and dietary fiber are included as prebiotics. Dandelion Greens, Asparagus, apples, Burdock, Barley, Seaweeds act as prebiotics ingredients to nourish the probiotics, supporting your gut health.
- Cully, Megan. “Antibiotics Alter the Gut Microbiome and Host Health.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 17 June 2019
- “Antibiotics: List of Common Antibiotics & Types.” Drugs.com
- Khan, Israr, et al. “Alteration of Gut Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Cause or Consequence? IBD Treatment Targeting the Gut Microbiome.” Pathogens, vol. 8, no. 3, 2019, p. 126., doi:10.3390/pathogens8030126.
- Hepatology, The Lancet Gastroenterology &. “Probiotics: Elixir or Empty Promise?” The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 4, no. 2, 2019, p. 81., doi:10.1016/s2468-1253(18)30415-1.
- Goldenberg JZ, Mertz D, Johnston BC. Probiotics to prevent Clostridium difficile infection in patients receiving antibiotics. JAMA 2018; 320:499–500. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.9064.